Change Indicator

Children who have been suspended from school by race and ethnicity in United States

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Definition and Source



Percentages are based on school enrollment. Enrollment refers to the unduplicated count of students on the rolls of the school.  The unduplicated count includes students both present and absent and excludes duplicate counts of students within a specific school or students whose membership is reported by another school.  An in-school suspension is an instance in which a child is temporarily removed from his or her regular classroom(s) for at least half a day for disciplinary purposes, but remains under the direct supervision of school personnel.  Direct supervision means school personnel are physically in the same location as students under their supervision. An out-of-school suspension is an instance in which a child is temporarily removed from his/her regular school for at least half a day (but less than the remainder of the school year) for disciplinary purposes to another setting (e.g. home, behavior center). Out-of-school suspensions include removals in which no educational services are provided, and removals in which educational services are provided (e.g. school-provided at home instruction or tutoring). 

Data Source

U.S. Department of Education. Civil rights data collection: 2011-12, 2013-14, 2015-16, and 2017-18 Discipline Estimations by Discipline Type. Available at:


Updated August 2021.
S - Estimates suppressed when the reporting standards were not met. 
Data come from a sample of public school districts. Districts may have accidentally reported the number of disciplinary incidents instead of students disciplined. All racial categories are mutually exclusive. When no race/ethnicity was indicated, racial category was imputed.

Last Updated

August 2021