Change Indicator

Families with children ages birth to 8 where no available parent has full-time, year-round employment by income level in United States

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Definition and Source



Neither parent in a married couple or single parent achieved an Associate’s degree though may have had earned some college credit beyond a high school diploma/GED.

'Parent(s)' are not limited to biological parents.  As described below, ‘parents’ can refer to related householders, foster parents and the unmarried cohabiting partner of a parent, householder or foster parent.

Indicators represent families with at least one child age 0 through 8.

When children do not live with a parent i.e. not a child of the householder and not a child in a subfamily, we use characteristics of the householder and spouse to substitute for parents. These are households where the child is related to the householder but there is no parent present in the household.  Relationships to the householder include stepparent, brother or sister, grandparent, parent-in-law, and other relative.  In addition the only households that we included where the child is potentially not related to the householder are households with foster children. 

Families where unmarried parents or householders live with a cohabiting partner, the cohabiting partner’s characteristics are substituted as a spouse’s.

Children who are unrelated to the householder (aside from foster children as previously specified) or live in group quarters are excluded from this analysis.  They include children identified as a roomer or boarder, a housemate or roommate, and other nonrelative.

Data Source

Population Reference Bureau, analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 American Community Survey PUMS file.


Updated: November 2014
S - Estimates suppressed when the coefficient of variation is greater than or equal to 30.
N.A.- Estimates are not available.

Last Updated

November 2014