Change Indicator

Own children age birth to 13 with all parents in the labor force, by age of child in North Dakota

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Why This Indicator Matters

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Definition and Source



This indicator represents the total number of own children age birth through 13 with parents (all parents living in the household) who are in the labor force. Age categories provided for this indicator include children ages 0 through 5 and children age 6 through 13. While not all children with working parents may need child care, this indicator offers a good approximation of the number of children potentially needing care.

The denominator for the percentage is the total number of own children in households, in each age group in respective geographic areas. The labor force is defined as persons age 16 and older who are employed (part-time or full-time) or unemployed (not working, but actively looking and available to accept a job). People not in the labor force include all persons 16 and older not employed or actively seeking employment, such as students, retirees, homemakers, and institutionalized persons.

The data source listed provides data for two age groups: birth through 5 and 6 through 17; however, the typical age range for children needing child care is birth through 13. To obtain children ages 6 through 13 with parents in the labor force, we derived an estimation process by applying the proportion of children ages 6 through 17 with working parents to the number of children age 6 through 13 (i.e., an age group more applicable to needing child care). The assumption in this process is that children age 6 through 13 have the same likelihood of having working parents as children in the larger age group 6 through 17.

Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B23008. 


GEOGRAPHY - Data reflect place of residence.
DATE - Census data reflect April 1 of reference year. The ACS data reflect a 5-year pooled estimate. That is, the estimate is the result of data being continuously collected nearly every day for five years.
LIMITATIONS - Characteristics for geographic areas experiencing dynamic change due to things such as an environmental catastrophe (e.g., flood) or a plant closing will be mitigated since these estimates cover five calendar years of data. Caution is needed when using the multiyear estimates for estimating year-to-year change in a particular characteristic. This is because four of the five years in the 5-year estimate overlap with the next year’s estimate. Ideally, trend analysis with multiyear estimates should be done using estimates from non-overlapping periods (i.e., 2006-2010 and 2011-2015).
Data are based on a sample and are subject to sampling variability. The degree of uncertainty for an estimate arising from sampling variability is represented here through the use of a margin of error. The value shown here is the 90 percent margin of error. The margin of error can be interpreted roughly as providing a 90 percent probability that the interval defined by the estimate plus or minus the margin of error (the lower and upper confidence bounds) contains the true value. The larger the margin of error, the less confidence one should have that the reported results are close to the true value. Use caution when drawing conclusions based on small numbers, as smaller samples yield larger margins of error. Margins of error corresponding to a 90 percent confidence interval for each estimate can be found at
Own children age birth to 13 with all parents in the labor force, by age of child.

Last Updated

December 2023