Change Indicator

Kindergarteners whose fall PALS-K scores were below kindergarten readiness levels by race in Virginia

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Definition and Source



PALS-K is a measure of children’s knowledge of several important literacy fundamentals: phonological awareness, alphabet recognition, concept of word, knowledge of letter sounds and spelling. PALS-K provides a direct means of matching literacy instruction to specific literacy needs and provides a means of identifying those children who are relatively behind in their acquisition of these fundamental literacy skills.  

AY refers to the academic year. The PALS-K exam is given in the fall of that year. 

Data Source

Virginia Department of Education 


Last updated: May 2020

Last Updated

May 2020