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Households in poverty or who are asset limited, income constrained, employed (ALICE) in Michigan

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Why This Indicator Matters

The Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed (ALICE) measure provides a more accurate view of economic security. ALICE represents working households that are above the federal poverty level, but whose earnings are not enough to afford a “survival budget” based on the bare-minimum cost of household necessities. For example, in 2021, a family of four needed an annual household income of over $54,540 to afford the basics—an income significantly higher than the federal poverty level of $26,500 for a family of four.
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Definition and Source



All people who are in households that are either in poverty or determined to be asset limited, income constrained, employed (ALICE). The percentage is based on the total population during that period.

Data Source

United for Alice


ALICE is a metric developed by United Way to estimate the number of households who earn above the Federal Poverty Level, but not enough to afford a bare-bones household budget. To learn more about methodology, visit:

In 2019, ALICE underwent methodology changes that were applied to all data, resulting in changes to past and current year counts. Data for 2010 and 2019 were correct in the 2021 profiles and Data Book at time of publication.

Last Updated

May 2023