Change Indicator

Births to mothers who smoked during pregnancy in United States

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Definition and Source



Births to women who smoked during pregnancy.

Data Source

2007-2021 Population Reference Bureau analysis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). 2003-2006 Child Trends analysis of NCHS Final Birth microdata files.

1) United States' total reflects the total from states using the 2003 revised birth certificate only.
2) To view data for states that continue to use the 1989 standard birth certificate see the indicator named: Births to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (1989 standard birth certificate). Starting in 2011, data for this indicator is no longer available for states that have not yet adapted the 2003 birth certificate.
3) Results are only reported on the KIDS COUNT Data Center when states have an entire calendar year of the 2003 Revised Birth Certificate or an entire calendar year of the 1989 Unrevised Birth Certificate. States that implement after January 1st are noted as N.A. (not available) for that year in both the revised and unrevised tables. This occurs in the following instances: 2004 New Hampshire, 2005 Vermont, and 2007 Georgia, 2009 District of Columbia, Nevada, and Oklahoma, 2010 Louisiana and North Carolina, 2011 Massachusetts and Minnesota.
4) Reliable data on tobacco use is not available for Georgia in 2008 and 2011.
5) Data is not available for Florida, starting in 2004, and Michigan starting in 2007 because the tobacco use item on these states' birth certificates is not consistent with tobacco use items on either the 1989 or 2003 birth certificates.
6) While New York State implemented the revised birth certificate in 2004, New York City did not do so until 2008. Therefore, U.S. totals for 2004 through 2007 include New York City and exclude the remainder of New York State.
7) In California, tobacco use is not included on the birth certificate until 2007.


N.A. - Not available. 
N.C. - Not comparable with data for states or cities using the 2003 revised birth certificate or for their own state for previous years but comparable with those using the 1989 standard birth certificate.
S - NCHS reporting standards not met.
Data are provided for the 50 most populous cities according to the most recent Census counts.  Cities for which data is collected may change over time.

Last Updated

April 2023