Change Indicator

Young adults (ages 18 to 24) with low-income in Hawaii

Young adults (ages 18 to 24) with low-income

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Note: Non-consecutive years appear adjacent in the trend line
because one or more years have been deselected.

Why This Indicator Matters

Young adulthood represents a critical life stage for establishing independence from parents through education and employment as well as other markers such as residential independence, marriage, and parenthood.1 Young adults with low-income are less likely to attend college and receive less financial support from their parents. Young adults from low-income households may be forced to take on adult roles too early because they receive less financial transfers from parents and face challenges of economic hardship.2

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Definition and Source



Percent of young adults ages 18 to 24 with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level

Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, (various years), American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B17024: Age by Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months - Universe: Population for whom poverty status is determined

Technical Note:
Poverty estimates from ACS should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE).

Please note, the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates provide average characteristics aggregated over a 5-year period. The primary advantage of using multiyear estimates is the increased statistical reliability of the data for less populated areas and small population subgroups. However, 5-year estimates are less current than single year estimates (i.e., since they are derived from averages over five calendar years) and should not be compared to single year estimates. The Census Bureau suggests comparing periods that do not overlap, such as comparing 2007-2011 with 2012-2016, which means waiting longer to identify a trend (for more information, read the comparison guidance and Period Estimates in the American Community Survey). However, in areas undergoing fundamental shifts in the size or composition of the population, change may be so substantial that it will be obvious after only a few years. Please see the ACS handbook on Understanding and Using American Community Survey Data for more information. 

Following pandemic-related data collection disruptions, the Census Bureau revised its methodology to reduce nonresponse bias in data collected in 2020. After evaluating the effectiveness of this methodology, the Census Bureau determined the standard, full suite of 2016–2020 ACS 5-year data are fit for public release, government and business uses. To learn more about changes to the methodology, view the methodology user note.

A 90 percent confidence interval for each estimate can be found at the link in the footnotes below.


1 Shanahan, Michael. 2000. “Pathways to Adulthood in Changing Societies: Variability and Mechanisms in Life Course Perspectives.” Annual Review of Sociology 26(1): 667-692. 
2 Kendig, Sarah M., Marybeth Mattingly, and Suzanne M. Bianchi. 2015. “Childhood Poverty and the Transition to Adulthood.” Family Relations 63(2): 271-286.

Young adults (ages 18 to 24) with low-income .

Last Updated

December 2023