Change Indicator

% of children with no parents in workforce in Hawaii

% of children with no parents in workforce

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Why This Indicator Matters

Parental employment is important for overall child well-being as it increases the likelihood of family economic security, good nutrition, decent and stable housing, and adequate health care. Growing up in economic hardship threatens healthy child development.1

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Definition and Source



Percent of children in families where no parent is in the workforce

Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Various Years, Table B23008: Age of Own Children under 18 Years in Families and Subfamilies by Living Arrangements by Employment Status of Parents - Universe: Own Children Under 18 Years in Families and Subfamilies

Technical Notes:

Please note, the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates provide average characteristics aggregated over a 5-year period. The primary advantage of using multiyear estimates is the increased statistical reliability of the data for less populated areas and small population subgroups. However, 5-year estimates are less current than single year estimates (i.e., since they are derived from averages over five calendar years) and should not be compared to single year estimates. The Census Bureau suggests comparing periods that do not overlap, such as comparing 2007-2011 with 2012-2016, which means waiting longer to identify a trend (for more information, read the comparison guidance and Period Estimates in the American Community Survey). However, in areas undergoing fundamental shifts in the size or composition of the population, change may be so substantial that it will be obvious after only a few years. Please see the ACS handbook on Understanding and Using American Community Survey Data for more information. 

Following pandemic-related data collection disruptions, the Census Bureau revised its methodology to reduce nonresponse bias in data collected in 2020. After evaluating the effectiveness of this methodology, the Census Bureau determined the standard, full suite of 2016–2020 ACS 5-year data are fit for public release, government and business uses. To learn more about changes to the methodology, view the methodology user note.

Estimates for Kauai in 2022, 2021, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2013, 2012, 2011, and 2010 only offer medium reliability and should be used with caution. For more information, contact the Center on the Family. 


1 Waldfogel, Jane. 2006. What Children Need. Harvard University Press.

% of children with no parents in workforce.

Last Updated

December 2023