Change Indicator

Children in poverty (birth to age 17) in Hawaii

Children in poverty (birth to age 17)

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Why This Indicator Matters

Growing up in poverty threatens healthy child development.1 Poverty can negatively impact a child’s cognitive, social, emotional and physical health. The effects of poverty can build over time, with consequences at one stage impeding progress at a later stage. When children experience poverty in early childhood, or when poverty persists over an extended period of time, the consequences can be long-lasting.2

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Definition and Source



Percent of children under age 18 in families with incomes below the federal poverty level

Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program, Model-based small area income and poverty estimates for school districts, counties, and states, various years.

Technical Note:
Several data sources are used in producing the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program estimates. Information on data inputs can be found at For states and counties, comparisons between modeled estimates for two different years, from 2006 and beyond are possible for poverty rate of the population ages 0 to 17. Poverty estimates from SAIPE should not be compared with other poverty indicators based on data from the American Community Survey 5-year estimates.


1Engle, Patrice L. and Maureen M. Black. 2008. “The Effect of Poverty on Child Development and Educational Outcomes.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1136(1): 243-256.; KIDS COUNT. 2019. “2019 Kids Count Data Book: State Trends in Child Well-being.” The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available here:
2Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. 1997. “The Effects of Poverty on Children.” The Future of Children 7(2).; Ratcliffe, Caroline and Signe-Mary McKerman. 2012. “Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequences.” Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute.

Last Updated

December 2023