Change Indicator

Households with a housing cost burden in Hawaii

Households with a housing cost burden

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Why This Indicator Matters

The cost of basic needs matters for financial security and housing is often one of the largest expenses families face.1 Low-income households are more likely to have larger portions of their income spent on housing, which can make it difficult to meet other basic needs.2

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Definition and Source



Percent of households spending 30 percent or more of household income on housing costs

Data Source

U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 5-Year Estimates, Various Years, Table B25106 "Tenure by Housing Costs as a Percentage of Household Income in the Past 12 Months" Universe: Occupied Housing Units 

Technical Notes:
Housing cost burden is defined as spending 30 percent or more of the household income on housing. The total number of owner-occupied units includes households with zero or negative income. The total number of renter-occupied units includes households with zero or negative income and no cash rent. 

Please note, the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates provide average characteristics aggregated over a 5-year period. The primary advantage of using multiyear estimates is the increased statistical reliability of the data for less populated areas and small population subgroups. However, 5-year estimates are less current than single year estimates (i.e., since they are derived from averages over five calendar years) and should not be compared to single year estimates. The Census Bureau suggests comparing periods that do not overlap, such as comparing 2007-2011 with 2012-2016, which means waiting longer to identify a trend (for more information, read the comparison guidance and Period Estimates in the American Community Survey). However, in areas undergoing fundamental shifts in the size or composition of the population, change may be so substantial that it will be obvious after only a few years. Please see the ACS handbook on Understanding and Using American Community Survey Data for more information. 

Following pandemic-related data collection disruptions, the Census Bureau revised its methodology to reduce nonresponse bias in data collected in 2020. After evaluating the effectiveness of this methodology, the Census Bureau determined the standard, full suite of 2016–2020 ACS 5-year data are fit for public release, government and business uses. To learn more about changes to the methodology, view the methodology user note.


1 Kids Count Data Center. Selected KIDS COUNT Indicators for State in Hawaii. Accessed October 2018:,7246,43,5043,7244,5062,7247,7188,5116,5119,7245,7248,5425,7249,7243,7253,7250,106,5203,6795,7259
2Mimura, Y. (2008). Housing Cost Burden, Poverty Status, and Economic Hardship among Low-income Families. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29(1), 152–165.

Households with a housing cost burden.

Last Updated

December 2023